Comparative Quality Analysis of UB’s Community Water and Borehole Water in Molyko Buea

Project Details

Department
MICROBIOLOGY
Project ID
BIO02
Price
5000XAF
International: $20
No of pages
40
Instruments/method
Empirical
Reference
yes
Analytical tool
Descriptive 
Format
 MS word & PDF
Chapters
1-5

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OR

ABSTRACT

Background: Water is very essential element of human nature but yet a very dangerous element in the spread of diseases. There is a strong relationship existing between water, health and diseases causation. Water can get easily contaminated either by its environment or its method of storage. Drinking water should always be kept in a clean environment and as for its storage, it should be cleaned and replaced regularly. Coliform bacteria are defined as rod shaped, gram negative non-spore forming and motile or non-motile bacteria which can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 440C. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm blooded animals. Water is one of the elements conducive for the growth of this faecal coliform and that’s why it’s treatment is very important before consumption.

Materials and methods: To achieve this, samples of water (borehole and UB’s community) water were collected from different homes for borehole water and UB’s commun water. This analysis is to see which water is best for consumption and so how environment and storage can contaminate the water. This samples were evaluated for faecal coliform count on Violet Red Bile agar following standard microbiological procedure then Kligler’s Iron agar is used for the identification and differences of micro-organisms.

Results: Our results showed that, 60% of the samples yielded growth on violet red bile agar with mean faecal coliform count of < 20 CFU/ml. 100% of the samples yielded positive results for Kligler iron agar. A total of the samples were contaminated with faecal coliform which at a long run was identified to be E.coli due to the Kligler iron test carried out.

Conclusion: More than half (85%) of the borehole water was actually contaminated and we have seen how the storage of water also plays a role in its contamination. UB’s community water contamination was gotten from its stored sample and not from the direct tap therefore storage and environment play a huge role in water contamination

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1.             INTRODUCTION

Earth consist of approximately 70% surface area covered with water and the remaining  30% is occupied by land. And of this 70% only 2% of this water is drinkable as a majority of the water comes from seas.

Water is an important  chemical molecule required by living things for their survival. Availability of portable water in Cameroon is limited to urban areas and very few rural areas, this is as a result  ,  lack of funds, lack of sophisticated equipment for managing water, poor town planning as most houses are on poor topography that can’t support water pressure. In other towns like Buea and Limbe, though portable water has been made  65% available by CAM WATER, it doesn’t flow consistently as  every street has a particular time in which water flows, as a result of these short comings about  10% have sought other means of getting portable water such as constructing bore holes, or use of filters , the remaining  20% depends solely on the natural sources of water such as streams ( commonly called Ndongo in Buea ) rain and springs.With little or no purification techniques unprivileged inhabitants of Buea are most susceptible to water borne diseases and their sources of water are prone to pollutions such as feacal  matter, agricultural and industrial waste. In order to minimize the degree of water borne diseases  it is important to know the microbial quality of  the water we are consuming.

 

 

1.2.   LITERATURE REVIEW:

Most coliforms are present in large numbers among the intestinal flora of humans and other warm blooded animals and are thus found in faecal wastes. As a consequence, coliforms detected in higher concentration than pathogenic bacteria thus are used as an index of the potential presence of the entero-pathogens in water environments. The use of more specifically E-coli as an indicator of microbiological water quality dates from faeces at the end of the 19th century.

Coliform are also routinely found in diversified natural environments, as some of them are of telluric origin but drinking water is not a natural environment for them. Their presence in drinking water must at least be considered as a possible threat or indicative of microbiological water quality. A positive total coliform samples in treated water indicates treatment infectiveness, loss of disinfectant, break through or regrowth problems in the distribution system and as a result should not be tolerated.

The use of coliform group as an indicator of possible presence of enteric pathogens in aquatic system has been a sUBject of debate for many years. Many authors have reported water borne disease outbreaks in water meeting the coliform regulations.

Indicators of drinking water

In this review, the main indicator of microbial quality I will use is; Faecal coliform (we-coli).

This method is by the detection of faecal coliforms such as E-coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. Faecal coliform are subtotal of total coliform. They appear in great quantities in the intestines and faeces of people and animals. Although still in use in some jurisdiction, the lack of specificity of the coliform test to faecal pollution of drinking water has long been documented. For example the presence klebsiella spp count has been associated with various vegetation pulp and paper effluent in the absence of faecal contamination. This is why a positive faecal coliformtest should be interpreted with caution.

E-coli is the most reliable indicator and is therefore the indicator of choice to indicate occurrence of recent faecal contamination in drinking water systems.

Growth of indicators on agar

  • Violet red bile agar ;

It is a selective medium used to enumerate lactose fermenting coliform microorganisms. It relies on the selective inhibitory crystal violet and bile salt, the indicator system lactose and neutral red. Where in degradation of lactose to acid is indicated by a red color.

Table 1: Colour of colonies in Violet-Red Bile Agar

Organisms

Growth

Enterobacter aerogen

Pink to pinkish red

Escherichia coli

Red with bile precipitated

Salmonella typhimurium

Fair to good growth, colorless colonies

Salmonella enteridis

Colorless to organish yellow

Staphylococcus aureus

Partial to complete inhibition

 

1.3. Rationale

To clearly proof that borehole source of water is more contaminated and is the major cause of water borne diseases in the Buea municipality.

1.4. Research hypothesis

Bacteria are present in most water sources especially in stored water if the storage condition is not a good one. We hypothesized that, faecal coliform such as E-coli was strongly found in the borehole water gotten from all the tap samples and storage too while that of UB’s community water was more of its storage.

1.5. Research objectives

1.5.1        Overall objective

To investigate and compare the quality of borehole water and that of UB’s community water.

1.5.2        Specific objectives:

  • To find out storage effects of households on the presence of coliforms.
  • To always treat water before consumption for precaution.
  • To find out the prevalence of bacteria pathogen in drinking water.

 

 

 

 

 

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