The Effectiveness of Guidance and Counselling Services in Managing Students' Behaviour in Government Secondary Schools in Kumba III Municipality

Project Details

Department
Guidance and Counseling
Project ID
GC12
Price
5000XAF
International: $20
No of pages
97
Instruments/method
Quantitative
Reference
yes
Analytical tool
Descriptive 
Format
 MS Word & PDF
Chapters
1-5

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this work was to investigate the effectiveness of guidance and counseling services in managing students’ behavior in government secondary schools in the Kumba III municipality.

The general research objective which was to investigate the effectiveness of guidance and counseling in managing students’ behaviour gave rise to three specific research objectives; to establish the extent to which team work among counselors influence successful management of students’ behaviour, to establish the usage of guidance and counseling services in managing students’ behaviour and to find out the influence of the counselee level of participation in the effectiveness of guidance and counseling in managing students’ behaviour.

From the objectives, three research questions were formulated; what is the influence of team work among counselors influence successful management of students’ behaviour, what is the usage of guidance and counseling services in managing students’ behaviour and what is the influence of the counselee level of participation in the effectiveness of guidance and counseling  in managing students’ behaviour.

The study employed a cross-sectional research design and the simple random sampling technique was used to the respondents. Three government schools with resident counselors in Meme Division were uses in the study with sample size of 200 participants and six counselors.

A student questionnaire and an interview guide for counselors were designed by the researcher as instruments for data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were uses to analyze data.

Table, pie, column and bar charts were used to analyze data, while hypothesis were tested through chi-square using the Statistical Passage for Social Science (SPSS) Version 20.0.

The findings of the study revealed that team work among counselors influence has a significant effects on the successful management of students’ discipline, the effectiveness of guidance and counseling has a significant effects in managing students’ discipline and that counselee level of participation in  the  in guidance and counselling has a significant effects in managing students’ discipline in government secondary schools in Kumba Ill municipality.

As a recommendation, school counselors should be efficient in providing their service and encourage students to make effective use of guidance and counseling in order to maintain behaviour in schools. Some suggestions were made for future studies.

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Introduction

Schools are expected to created environment that actively promote students discipline with the help of a guidance counselor. This chapter gives a general introduction to the chapter which expounds on guidance and counseling and effectiveness in managing students’ discipline.

The chapter outlines background to the study, research questions, hypothesis, justification of the study, and significance of the study, Delimitations of the study, operational definition of terms and summary of the chapter.

Background to the Study

Historically, the term “guidance and counseling” have been conceived internationally in different ways. Jack and Enose (2010), quoting Makinde (1987) defined them as an interaction process co-joining the counselee, who is vulnerable and who needs assistance, the goal of which is to help the counselee learn to deal more effectively with himself and the reality of his environment.

The concept of developmental guidance was born in the 20th century. From its inception through the 1950s, the focal point of guidance in school setting was Vocational education and training.

Heavily influenced by the industrial revolution and world war, the concern of counselors and teachers alike was to prepare students for life after high school (Muro & Kottman, 1995). From a guidance perspective specifically, that meant steering students to career that beat fit their abilities and goals

By 1950s, developmental guidance had grown to incorporate the moulding of student’s attitudes and behaviors. More emphasis was placed on the mental health and emotional wellbeing of children.

By the late 1960s, the role of the guidance counselor began to take its current shape. In its contemporary star, guidance has grown to include counseling, planning, placement, referrals and consultation (Schmidt, 1993).

In the United States, Guidance and counseling movement was adopted by neighboring Canada, a British Common wealth member, and then spread to the United Kingdom and other common wealth countries like Malaysia during the 1960s.

An informal arrangement certainly preexisted during British colonial rule in which guidance and counseling in schools were traditionally practiced through a system of classroom teachers, house master and hotel masters (Othman & Baka, 1993).In 1963, a British Common wealth colbo plan consultant, RK.

Mackenzie from Canada, proposed the introduction of a structured guidance service into the schools through establishment of a guidance and counseling unit in the ministry of education and in every States education department (ministry pp. 40).

The ministry then ruled that there should be a guidance and counseling teacher in each schools who would be given approximately twenty-five of academic work and be exempted from other activities.

The history of guidance and counseling in Cameroon is divided into three(3) main era which is the Searching Era(1945 – 1968), the Identity Era(1968 – 1982) and the new direction Era(1982 – 2005).

The Searching Era (1945 – 1968).In 1944, there was the recognition of the relevance of Guidance and counseling during the Brazza conference. Also in 1945, the first polytechnic service was created in Douala and in 1949, the center for psychological counseling and vocational choice was created and placed under the generally inspectorate of labour.

In 1951, the center was renamed in service for psychological counseling and vocational choice (SPOSP) was attached to the SG of the local governor. The identity Era (1968 – 1982)

In 1963, the polytechnic created in Douala was transformed to a professional orientation service and psychological study unit under the ministry of employment. In 1968, the creation of a guidance bureau within the planning service of MINEDUC, an Oriental service was also created under the ministry of education, youth and culture.

In 1974 the Oriental service was transformed into school university Oriental service (SOSUP).

In 1957, few Cameroonians were trained in France and in 1982, the creation of a section for training counselors in ENS Yaoundé, and lastly the creation of service in the various delegate of national Education in 1984.The new direction Era (1982 -2005)

In 1968, sub delegate office was created. In 1998, one law laid down guidelines for education in Cameroon and in1992, the sub directorate for academic and professional guidance was created.

In 2002, there was the establishment of the corps of guidance and counseling. In 2003, the creation of the state and day of educational guidance and finally in 2005, a cell of school Oriental was created.

Theoretically, social learning theory as proposed by Albert Bandura in 1986 stress that behavior is not solely determine by inner drives or the environment, but is a result of an interactive association between inner processes and environmental variables.

The inner processes are covert events based on earlier experiences and are controlled by external environment al influence to bring about overt responses observed by Feltham and Horton (2006).

Bandura view verbal representation and imaginable representation of the environmental guide a person’s behavior. Thus; one can use both insight and foresight to solve his or her problems. Learning also occurs through observational learning in a process known modeling.

 BF Skinner theory of behaviorism who argued that every personality is the products of environmental experience. In this study, it is posted that the principal and teachers should work cooperatively in guiding and counseling students for the purpose of achieving high standards of discipline.

On the other hand, students have to see themselves as instruments, which the future society depends upon. Thus they should aim to be role models.

To the theorists, students must accept and adhere to the rules and regulations within the school organizations. As students, they are expected to enhance their capabilities, opportunities and abilities in life, which are provided by the school curriculum.

Contextually, the role of guidance and counseling and effectiveness in managing students’ discipline in Cameroon by the various government policy documents since independence.

With respect to the ministerial order No= 67/B1/1464/ MINEDUC/CAB of February 2013, defining the mission of Guidance counselor which in its article 4, clearly spells out the mission of a guidance counselor in school.

Also the 17th edition of the national guidance and counseling day (NGCD) took place at the government Bilingual high school Bepanda with the theme “

The promotion of social valued in school: the contributions of guidance counseling “; which raised by the theme is that of the effectiveness/important role of guidance and counseling in synergy with all the other education stakeholders in the promotion of moral principle of our father land.

Character is the foundation not self – development. Moral values lies in the great visionaries like Mahatma Ghandi and Nelson Mandela who pronounced that education without moral values would lead to chaos, mental and social disorder, thus guidance and counseling plays an effective role in managing students discipline in school

Conceptually, the Concept of Guidance and counselling is described as an enlightened process whereby people help people by facilitating growth and positive adjustment through self-understanding. (Kolo,2001).

Akinade (2012) defines guidance and counselling as a process of helping an individual become fully aware of him and the ways in which he is responding to the influences of his environment. It further assists him to establish some personal meaning for this behaviour and to develop and classify a set of goals and values for future behaviour.

Corey (1988) regards counseling as a process which occurs in one to one relationship between an individual troubled by problems with which he cannot cope with and a professional worker whose training and experiences have qualified him to help others reach solution to personal needs.

Okoye (1990) viewed counseling as an interactional relationship designed to facilitate the personal development of information leading to effective decision making and awareness of the self.

Counseling is a learning process in which a counselor helps an individual or individuals learn, understand themselves and their environment and be in a position to choose the right type of behaviours that will help them develop, grow, progress, ascend, mature and step up, educationally, vocationally and socio personally. (Egbo, 2013).

In other words, counseling is a transformative process of helping people to learn all that are to be learnt both in and outside the School.

Different authors have defined discipline in various terms. Adesina (1980:108), says that discipline is to teach the students manners on how show respect to school authorities, to observe the school laws and regulations and to maintain an established standard of behaviour.

From this definition the school has a primordial role to play in instilling discipline into their students. Therefore school administrators and teachers should enforce acceptable behaviour in their students.

Egwunyenga (1994) defined discipline as the training that enables an individual to develop an orderly conduct and self-control as well as direction. Peretomode (1995) maintains that discipline involves the ability to have self-control, restraint, respect for self and respect for others.

Discipline according to Abubakar (2000) is the ability and willingness to do what one ought to do without external control. Hence one can say discipline is internally motivated within the individual and depends on the state of mind of an individual. It is voluntary and an individual deliberately makes efforts to conform to an established code of conduct.

However, Aguba (2009) while emphasizing Douglas McGregor’s theory x, maintained that discipline is externally induced in individuals who do not succumb to established rules and regulations out of personal volition but out of fear of punishment or sanction.

Rosen (1997) sees discipline as a branch of knowledge, training that develops self-control, character, orderliness or efficiency, strict control to enforce obedience and treatment that controls or punishes and as a system of rules. According to Slee (1995), discipline involves teaching and self-control.

The United States department of Education 1993:1 in Rosen (1997) acknowledges that maintaining a disciplined environment conducive for learning requires an ethics of caring that shapes staff student’s relations. The public presumes that schools are the preferred environment to transform productive and useful citizens of any nations.

Agbenyega (2006) retains that decent discipline is one of the key attributes of effective schools and most school which experienced frequent deviant students’ behaviour have been blamed on lack of effective implementation of school rules and regulations for discipline to reign in school.

One can say that discipline comes through effective management of an organization. Indiscipline on the other hand is any act that diverges from the acceptable societal norms and values.

It is a violation of school rules and regulations which is capable of obstructing the smooth and orderly functioning of the school system (Edem, 1982). An undisciplined child is an uncontrollable child and can do any damage in school when he does not get what he wants (Asiyai, 2012).

Statement of the Problem

Despite government effort to enforce discipline in Cameroonian schools, unrest has continued in secondary schools with a new dimension. Not only are they violent and destructive but they are also premeditated and planned and have caused maximum harm to human life.

There seems to be lack of effective alternative strategies to contend students’ indiscipline. This can be realized from the fact many schools in the country have been experiencing student’s violation and the Kumba lll municipality is not an exception.

The ministerial order No. 67/B1/1464/MIMEDUC/CAB of February 2013 defining the mission of the guidance counselor which in its article 4, clearly spells out the mission of a guidance counselor in managing of students’ discipline in schools due to its proactive approach. It is pertinent therefore to ask the question of how effective is the use of guidance and counseling in managing students’ behaviour?

Considering this question, the Cameroonians sought to investigate the effectiveness of guidance and counseling in managing students’ behaviour in government secondary schools in the Kumba III Municipality.

Objectives of the study

Main Research Objective

To investigate the effectiveness of guidance and counseling services in managing students’ behaviour in government secondary schools in Kumba lll municipality.

Specific Research Objectives

  • To establish the extent to which team work among counselors influence successful management of students’ behaviour in government secondary schools in Kumba lll municipality
  • To establish the usage in guidance and counseling services in managing students’ behaviour in government secondary schools in Kumba III Municipality.
  • To find out the influence of counselee level of participation in the effectiveness of guidance and counseling services in managing students’ behaviour in government secondary schools in Kumba III Municipality.

Research Questions

Main Research Question

To what extend is the effectiveness of guidance and counseling services help in managing students’ behaviour?

Specific Research Questions

  • To what extent does team work among counselors influence successful management of students’ behaviour in government secondary school in Kumba III Municipality?
  • What is the usage of guidance and counselling services in the management of students’ behaviour in government secondary school in Kumba III Municipality?
  • To what extent does the counselee level of participation in the effectiveness of guidance and counseling services influence the successful management of students’ discipline in government secondary school in Kumba III Municipality?
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