Home Environment and Students
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The main thrust of this study was to find out the effect of the Home environment on students’ performance in secondary schools in. the Buea Municipality, South West Region. Cameroon. Three research objectives and three questions guided the study. A literature review was reviewed under conceptual review and theoretical review. In this study, the researcher used an ecological system of development. and the Belsky Process Model. A survey research design was adopted for the study. The simple random sampling technique was used in getting the accessible population for the study.
The population for the stud} comprised of two secondary schools in the Buea Sub-Division. A 17-item closed-ended questionnaire developed b} the researcher was used for the data collection. Percentages, graphs, and tables were used to analyze tire research questions. The results of the tire study indicated that parenting styles. Parents’ level of education and socioeconomic status have a. significant effect on students’ academic performance in the Buea Municipality. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommended among others subsidize school fees, prices of basic school needs and create job opportunities so that parents can
be able to provide for their children a school needs and create job opportunities so that parents should not equally overload children much domestic work and school authorities should create strong relationships with the parents of their students in order to have a stable parent-teacher-association.
Background of the Study
Education is the process of instructions aimed at the all-round development of the individual, facilitating the realization of self-potential and latent of and (latent potential of an individual means that education brings out the hidden abilities of individuals that can’t be seen unless he\she gets involved ¡n education. Education brings out self-worth) individual (Anderman, 1999). Education has a pivotal role to play in the economic and social development of any nation. Bearing in mind the importance of education; education enhances a country’s economic growth, it also trains leaders for effective governance, gives people skills to be able to get jobs that will raise their standards of living, it is the concrete foundation for the country’s progress.
The primary environment of a student is the home and it stands to exert a tremendous impact on the student’s academic performance (Hoover – Dempsey et al.. 2005). Moreover, the home is the primary agent of education in the student. Thus, the way the student lives, the food he or she eats, his or her lifestyle in society is influenced by the home. The type of family system the student is exposed to could influence his or her academic achievement in school (Keith. ¡993). According to Eze (2002), homes vary markedly in socioeconomic status and academic level, not in the amount of wealth but in the ways in which the family income is obtained.
Harris & Gibbon, 1996; Hofferths & Sandberg, 2002; Jameson. 1997; Wallis & Cole. 1998. discussed factors in a home environment that provide students with educational tools needed to achieve academic success. Jameson specifies the importance of a quiet time and place for homework. There was also a discussion on the importance of a quiet time and place for homework. There was also a discussion on the negative impact of television but the positive impact of praise. Wallis (1996) wrote a parent guide on the importance of encouraging, praising, and involvement. Adolescents and children work hard in school when their parents and teachers congratulate and praise them each time they perform well in class. They enjoy praises like: well done, good boy\girl. In summation, they enjoy extrinsic motivation.
Individual differences in students7 achievement were studied by Baharu din& Luster (1998) relative to differences in a home environment. They found the quality of the students’ home environment to be positively related to academic performance. Students with higher test scores came from more supportive homes* The literature suggests home environment factors affect school achievement, and home environment factors may be influenced if the family culture follows the current trend. The essence of a “traditional American Family” has deteriorated with the stress in many of today’s families because of poverty, single parenting styles and working mothers’ stress in the home deteriorate the environment and these stressors affect school achievement.
In a study conducted on the effects of family structure and parenthood on the academic performance of Nigerian secondary school students. Uwaifo (2008) found a significant difference between the academic performance of students from single-parent families and those from a two-parent family structure, indeed, parental involvement and individuals experiences at home play tremendous roles in building the personality of the student and making the student what he or she is. Furthermore, many students have been hindered from reaching their optimum level in academic pursuit due to some negative factors arisen from home. These include; lack of parental encouragement, lack of a conducive environment for studies, poor finance and housing, poor feeding, ill-health, and lack of interest on the part of the students. Students whose needs (physical and emotional) are not provided for at-home may forever remain underachievers and this could affect the general development (physical and human resources) of the country.
Rivilin (1961) noted that parents’ engagement has a positive impact on the students’ academic performance, behavior in school, and attitude about school and work. Wison (1961) suggested that family environments were much more important than the school environment influencing parents and the teacher. Notwithstanding neither the teacher nor the parents can give accounts of some truants who leave home for school in the morning to come back in the evening without stepping on the school premises. In schools where there is a population explosion probably with insufficient tutorial staff to monitor activities of the students, the school finds it difficult to give a proper account of the students. This being the case, character reformation among the students becomes difficult to come by.
Statement of the Problem
It has been proven by some educational psychologists: Benjamin Bloom. Robert M. Gagne. John Dewey. Devin Kowalczuk that the differences in intelligence among individuals (students) are not the only factors responsible for the performances of students. Moreover, very scanty attention has been given to most aspects of the home environment of students such as parenting styles; parents’ occupation, and parents’ socio-economic status as it affects their academic performance. The problem of this research is to find out the impact of the home environment on students’ academic performances.
What is the extent that home factors influence students’ performances at school?
From the ongoing problems, the following objectives have been formulated by the stud\. Specifically, the study seeks to find out
- How parenting styles affect students’ academic performances
- How parent’s level of education affects students’ academic performance
- How family socioeconomic status affects students’ academic performance.
Generally, the study is intended to find out how the home environment influences students’ academic performance.
Specific Research Questions
- How do parenting styles affect students’ academic performance?
- How does the parents’ occupation affect students’ academic performances?
- How does family socioeconomic status affect students’ academic performances?